2. Problems of the traditional investment agreement model The CFIA is also innovative in forming a joint committee for cooperation and settlement of disputes between states. The dispute resolution element works through a mechanism that allows representatives of the investors and governments concerned to exchange views on the issue raised by investors and seek a solution on a common basis. Brazil`s response to criticism of the current regime has been to move away from the adversarial approach and to adopt a cooperative approach focused on elements of mutual benefit to investors and states. It has tried to avoid the problems of traditional agreements and to look for a model that really aims to encourage investment and not just protect it. Both developing and developed countries have begun to consider reforming the system of international investment agreements and promoting changes to their investment contract models, including clauses to clarify and limit states` obligations to investors and limit arbitration opportunities. Nevertheless, many of the concepts used for this purpose remain a great place for interpretation by arbitrators and not to solve the problem. Although the name or structure of the chords may vary slightly, their main characteristics are identical and are based on the CFIA model. The small changes show adaptations to the specific needs of each partner and the possibility of continuously improving the model without losing its essence.  UNCTAD. (2017). Investment Dispute Resolution Browser. It`s investmentpolicyhub.unctad.org/ISDS.
Unlike traditional ILOs, CFIAs do not provide for a mechanism for resolving investor-state disputes. Instead, in the event of a dispute between a foreign investor and the state, the CFIA provides for a two-tier system, which focuses first on prevention mechanisms and follows a dispute resolution phase consisting exclusively of interstate arbitration, excluding any direct right of a foreign investor to the arbitration of an investment host state.  Only 19 per cent of the 500 bits analysed by UNCTAD contained provisions for investment promotion. It`s the Cnuced. (2008). Provisions for promoting investment in international investment agreements. I called unctad.org/en/docs/iteiit20077_en.pdf. In the coming years, we will see whether cooperation and facilitation agreements will strengthen or diminish the protection of Brazilian investors abroad and foreign investors in Brazil. Despite its peculiarities with regard to its investment settlement, the country has a friendly approach to arbitration, but with regard to contracts with investors and the Brazilian state.
Several countries have adopted different strategies. Bolivia and Ecuador have laid off many of their ILOs. India is in the process of renegotiating or withdrawing from its ILO. In its agreements, Australia has moved away from investor-state arbitration. South Africa has turned to national mediation for investor-state dispute settlement. The United States has made some changes to its ILO model. Within the European Union, opposition from the European Parliament and civil society to the classic investor-state arbitration mechanism has led the European Commission to propose the creation of a reformed system with a permanent trial court and appeal mechanism.